A water ioniser is used for water electrolysis, i.e. the production of ionised alkaline water. Water electrolysis is splitting a water molecule by direct electric current flowing through it. Two electrodes are used for this purpose. The negative one is a cathode K, and the positive one – anode A. During electrolysis, water is split into positive acidic hydrogen ions (H+) and negative alkaline hydroxyl ions (OH-) according to the following formula: H2O = H+ + OH-.
The cathode attracts positive hydrogen ions, whereas the anode – negative hydroxyl ions. Around the cathode, electrons are being connected – the so-called reduction process takes place, during which positive hydrogen ions H+ attach electrons, resulting in the production of hydrogen H2: 2H+ + 2e = H2.
On the other hand, the anode attracts hydroxyl ions OH-. A reverse process takes place – the so-called oxidation, during which hydroxyl ions OH- give their electrons, resulting in the production of oxygen O2: 4OH- – 4e = 2H2O + O2. At the same time, hydrogen ions H+ gather around the anode.
Water electrolysis is also the electrolysis of all mineral salts dissolved in the water. Salt is a chemical compound composed of positively charged metal ions and negatively charged ions of acid residues.
As already mentioned, ionised water is produced in water ionisers. Such devices have two electrodes, i.e. a positive anode and a negative cathode, which are connected to direct current. The ioniser vessel filled with water is divided into two chambers by a special membrane. Openings in the membrane are of such diameter as to allow the ions of salts dissolved in the water to pass through them but retain larger water molecules. Therefore, when the process of electrolysis is complete, the water from both chambers does not mix and thus, it retains the acquired properties.
During electrolysis, positive metal ions are attracted by the cathode and the negative ions – by the anode. Positively charged alkaline metal (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium) ions and hydroxyl ions OH- are accumulated in the chamber with the K cathode. The content of hydroxyl ions determines water acidity: the higher the content, the higher the water alkalinity and pH. This is ionised alkaline (“living”) water.
In the second part of the vessel with the anode, negatively charged chlorine, sulphur, phosphorus and hydrogen ions H+ are accumulated. The more hydrogen ions, the stronger acidic properties of the water and the lower pH value. This is ionised acidic (“dead”) water.
Different alkaline and acidic water properties are obtained and for some time retained in a water ioniser. These properties are also different from the properties of the original water. If the alkaline and acidic water after completing the process of electrolysis is mixed, the initial parameters of the primary water will be obtained.